The term cardiology is derived from the Greek words “cardia,” which refers to the heart and “logy” meaning “study of.” Cardiology is a branch of medicine that concerns diseases and disorders of the heart, which may range from congenital defects through to acquired heart diseases such as coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. Physicians who specialize in cardiology are called cardiologists and they are responsible for the medical management of various heart diseases. Cardiac surgeons are the specialist physicians who perform surgical procedures to correct heart disorders.
Laparoscopic approaches avoid large incisions on the skin and abdominal wall. These techniques avoid having the intestines exposed to the room air during surgery. While not fully understood, laparoscopic approaches cause less systemic inflammation and post-operative intestinal scar tissue.
Laparoscopic surgery has successfully replaced open surgery as the preferred treatment option for issues such as bariatric surgery and gallbladder removal. In fact this surgery can now be performed as an outpatient operation. The treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease is now carried out using minimally invasive techniques. Laparoscopic fundoplication offers the advantage of faster recovery and quicker return to oral ingestion of food. Laparoscopic surgery for weight loss has caught on in a big way. Laparoscopy has advanced sufficiently to the extent that it can be repeated for a patient who has undergone a previous laparoscopic operation. However, care needs to be taken than organs do not get injured and to this end the entry site may have to be different and an alternate entry technique may have to be used. The risk to benefit ratio of laparoscopic surgery is improving continuously in favor of benefits.
YOU MAY WANT TO SEE A CARDIOLOGIST: •Physician recommendation—If your family-care doctor recommends you see a cardiologist, do it. Don’t put it off. You’ll regret it. •Heart pain—This is pretty much a given. You can see a full list of heart disease symptoms below. If you have any doubts about whether or not you are experiencing a symptom, however, get checked out. •Family history—If anyone in your family has or has had heart problems, you should be aware of heart disease symptoms and consider talking to a cardiologist about them •High total cholesterol—Total cholesterol is the sum of all the cholesterol in your blood. The higher your total cholesterol, the greater your risk for heart disease (a cholesterol level of 200 mg/dL or higher). •High blood pressure—You have high blood pressure or a high systolic number. The systolic number on your blood pressure reading is the first number. (For example, if your reading is 120/80 (120 over 80), your systolic blood pressure is 120.) •Are or were a smoker—Smoking is a huge risk factor for heart disease. It lowers the flow of oxygen to the heart and increases blood pressure, heart rate, and blood clotting as well as damages the cells lining the arteries. •Diabetic—Unfortunately diabetes can contribute to heart disease. If you experience symptoms of heart problems and are diabetic, you should see a cardiologist. •Difficult pregnancy, preeclampsia—Preeclampsia is often a hidden risk factor for heart disease. The two times a woman is most likely to develop heart disease is during pregnancy or post-menopause. •Starting a new exercise program—You are over the age of 40 and starting a new exercise program. You may already be working with a doctor on being more active, but a cardiologist can check your heart health and recommend exercises that would be good for your heart. •Gum disease—Believe it or not, gum disease can happen when the body is inflamed. Patients with swollen gums often have heart disease.